• Research paper on acid rain

    Effects of Acid Rain: Acid rain produces complex problems and their effects are:. Due to acid rain many water bodies in Germany and other European countries have a pH of less than 5. This acidity level is considered to be lethal for many fish species. Acidic water can also leach aluminium from the soil and carry this dissolved aluminium to lakes and streams.

    As the pH decreases, the previously insoluble aluminium goes into solution. This dissolved aluminium clogs the gills of fish and deprives them of oxygen.

    Argumentative research paper about acid rain

    It has low levels of phytoplankton. Some insects like dragon fly larvae, water boatman etc. Aquatic plants broad-leafed pondweeds etc. Bacteria and other microscopic animals are also reduced. Activity of nitrogen fixing bacteria are severely affected which ultimately hampers the nitrogen cycle.

    Research paper on acid rain

    Trees like spruce, pine ashes, birch etc. The Taj Mahal of India faces a grave situation due to acid rain. Heavy metals such as copper, cadmium, zinc, mercury etc. Research Paper 5. Control Strategy of Acid Rain : There are two major control strategies which are adopted viz.

    Most of these strategies are already applied in Europe. In there were In there were 2. Motor vehicles accounted for over a third of this, and are consequently a major contributor to gaseous air pollution, in particular from nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.

    Inroad transport contributed considerable air pollutants Table Forest Service in Durham, N. Acid rain research paper is the lead author. Acid rain was first identified in North America at Hubbard Brook in the mids, and later shown to result from long-range transport of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from power plants. Hubbard Brook research influenced national and international acid rain policies, including the Clean Air Act amendments.

    Righting Acid Rain - Research

    Researchers at Hubbard Brook have continued to study the effects of acid rain on forest growth and on soil and stream chemistry. Long-term biogeochemical measurements, for example, have documented a decline in calcium levels in soils and plants over acid rain research paper past 40 years. Calcium is leaching from soils that nourish trees such as maples. The loss is primarily related to the effects of acid rain and acid snow.

    Climate change will likely return them to an acidified state. The implications for these environments, and for humans depending on them, are severe. Climate projections indicate that over the 21st century, average air temperature will increase at the Hubbard Brook site by 1. With a pH of 4. Acid rain is not the sole cause of low pH in lakes and streams. There are many natural sources of acidity that can drive down pH to low levels as low as 4 even in the absence of acid rain: for example, organic acid inputs or mineral veins in underlying geologic materials.

    Similarly, natural sources of buffering capacity such as limestone bedrock can push pH to as high as 8. Notwithstanding these natural influences in specific locations, lakes and streams generally have pH values from 6 to 8. Hence, reductions in pH due to human-induced acid rain create an imbalance in the chemistry and ultimately the entire ecosystem of a lake or stream.

    Acid rain causes a cascade of effects that harm or kill individual fish, reduce fish populations, completely eliminate fish species from a waterbody, and decrease biodiversity. As acid rain flows through soils in a watershed, aluminum and other metals are released from soils into the lakes and streams located in that watershed.

    Thus, as a lake or stream becomes more acidic has lower pHaluminum levels increase. Both low pH and increased aluminum levels are directly toxic to fish. In addition, low pH and increased aluminum levels cause chronic stress that may not kill individual fish but may make fish less able to compete for food and habitat. The impact of declining pH varies because not all aquatic organisms can tolerate the same amount of acid.

    For example, frogs are better able than trout to tolerate somewhat acidified water. Generally, the young of most species are more sensitive to environmental conditions than adults. As pH levels decline, acid-sensitive species may attempt to migrate to better habitat, acid rain research paper, if blocked from migration, will likely die.

    At pH 5 and below, most fish species disappear, and ecosystem-level processes are affected. Some acid lakes and streams contain no fish.

    Acidified lakes and streams can be treated with agricultural lime in an attempt to counteract the acidity. Such temporary and localized measures are not as effective as emissions reductions in addressing the long-term and geographically widespread ecological impacts of acid rain.

    Acid rain has been implicated in forest and soil degradation in many areas of the eastern United States, particularly high elevation forests of the Appalachian Mountains from Maine to Georgia. Acid rain does not usually kill trees directly. Instead, it weakens trees by damaging their foliage, limiting the nutrients available to them, or exposing them to toxic substances slowly released from the soil. Quite often, injury or death is a result of acid rain in combination with other environmental stressors, such as insects, disease, drought, or very cold weather.

    Chemicals in watershed soils that provide buffering capacity such as calcium and magnesium are also important nutrients for many species of trees. As forest soils receive year after year of acid rain, these chemicals are washed away, depriving trees and other plants of essential soil nutrients.

    At the same time, acid rain causes the release of dissolved aluminum into the soil water, which can be toxic to trees and plants.

    The chemicals that provide buffering capacity take many decades to replenish through gradual natural processes, such as the weathering of limestone bedrock. Trees also can be damaged by acid rain even if the soil is well buffered. Mountainous forests often are exposed to greater amounts of acidity because they tend to be surrounded by acidic clouds and fog.

    Essential nutrients in foliage are stripped away when leaves and needles are frequently bathed in acid fog, causing discoloration and increasing the potential for damage by other environmental factors, especially cold weather. The pollutants that cause acid rain also damage human health. These gases interact in the atmosphere to form fine sulfate and nitrate particles that can be inhaled deep into the lungs.

    Scientific studies show relationships between elevated levels of fine particles and increased illness and premature death from heart disease and lung disorders, such as bronchitis. In addition, nitrogen oxides react in the atmosphere to form ozoneincreasing risks associated with lung inflammation, such as asthma. Sulfates and nitrates in the atmosphere also contribute to reductions in visibility.

    Sulfate particles account for 50 to 70 percent of decreased visibility in eastern U. In the western United States, nitrates and carbon also play roles, but sulfates have college admissions personal statement essay implicated as an important source of visibility impairment in some national parks, such as the Grand Canyon. Wet and dry acid deposition contribute to the corrosion of metals such as bronze and the deterioration of paint and stone such as marble and limestone.

    These effects seriously reduce the value to society of buildings, bridges, cultural objects such as statues, monuments, and tombstonesand automobiles. Inthe U. Press release Acid rain: 20 years on….

    Published 19 August Share this page Share on Facebook Share on Twitter. Explore the topic Food and farming Rural and countryside. Is this page useful? Maybe Yes this page is useful No research paper on acid rain page is not useful Is there anything wrong with this page? Thank you for your feedback. What were you doing?Our writers know all the academic styles so your essay will always be formatted in a proper manner. With us, you not only get high essays, you receive low-cost papers with our friendly discounts.

    Order the essay with us and save money! Call Now! Login Order now. Order now. Search for:. Order now! An highly deathly job in our environment is acerb rain. It causes workss and animate beings to decease particularly the fish in our Waterss.

    This deathly rain causes injury because we consume fish, workss, and H2O exposed to acid rain. Acid rain is a job that we must all confront together and seek to command. Merchandises that are manufactured cause possible acidic chemicals. The cost of decently disposing chemical merchandises are factors of why chemicals are emitted into the ambiance.

    The H ion is what do a substance acid. The other ion is sulphate. When there are more hydrogen ions so a substance is acid. It is this sulphate ion that we are interested in.

    When the rain causes rivers to overboard onto the Bankss the river H2O passes through the dirt. Since argumentative research paper about acid rain industrial revolution in United Kingdom there has been an increasing sum of sulfur in the dirt.

    In the river there is non adequate sulfur for the acid to respond in great measures. However in the dirt there is a great aggregation of sulfur to help the reaction. When it joins the H2O the pH becomes much lower. This is the most deathly consequence of acid rain on our H2O! The H2O itself does non incorporate plenty sulfur to kill off it s population of fish and workss. But with the sulfur in the dirt it does. Acid rain is a large job.

    It causes the decease of our lakes, our rivers, our wild life and most significantly us. As good it causes other jobs that are really serious as good such as the release of aluminum and lead into our H2O supplies. We are enduring because of it. In Scotland there are many birth defects being attributed to it.

    We must cut down the releases of chemicals that cause it. In the picture to the right, the eggs in water and orange are practically new, where as the egg in coke seems to have a few obstructions. However, the egg that is in the vinegar, is shown to be completely dissolving with bubbles even popping out from around it. In the picture to the left it show's the stature of liberty as how it once used to be Artists depictionand of how it is now.

    These drastic research paper cheap are fatal on the environment, natural or manmade. Solutions to solve this problem of acid rain?

    To reduce the acidity levels of rain, industries must cut down the research paper on acid rain of sulphur dioxide being produced when fossil fuels are burned and used. Viewing it like this, industries have a few options in which to choose from.

    Acid Rain: Causes, Effects and Solutions

    They can produce and use coal that has little to no amounts of sulphur on it, research can be done to find a way in which to remove sulphur from coal. Other choices, but less conventional range from gm food essay a different kind of fuel, or researching a way in which when the coal is burned, the sulfur is destroyed before being emissed into the atmosphere.

    There seems to be many ways to combat this issue, but the most conventional seems to be halting the emissions of pollutants all in all. Past research has shown that acidic pH levels can have serious environmental consequences.

    In aquatic and acid rain research paper ecosystems a range of organisms, such as salamanders, rainbow trout, frogs and crayfish, die when pH levels fall below 4. In addition to harming wildlife, acid precipitation can impact tree vigor and growth, degrade soil quality and lower crop yields. Since the early s, a team of scientists, led by Dr.

    Likens, has been gathering and assessing long-term data on precipitation chemistry at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. This acidity level is considered to be lethal for many fish species. Acidic water can also leach aluminium from the soil and carry this dissolved aluminium to lakes and streams. As the pH decreases, the previously insoluble aluminium goes into solution.

    This dissolved aluminium clogs the gills of fish and deprives them of oxygen. It has low levels of phytoplankton. Some insects like dragon fly larvae, water boatman etc. Aquatic plants broad-leafed pondweeds etc. Bacteria and other microscopic animals are also reduced.

    Activity of nitrogen fixing bacteria are severely affected which ultimately hampers the nitrogen cycle. Trees like spruce, pine ashes, birch etc. The Taj Mahal of India faces research paper on acid rain grave situation due to acid rain. Heavy metals such as copper, cadmium, zinc, mercury etc. Acid rain causes the death of the species living in the lakes through the poison acid rain leaves in them.

    With the help of the general public, the dream of an atmosphere free of acid rain can finally become a reality.

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Acid rain research paper

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